Little austrian history (Prof. Dr. G.F.Litschauer, 1946 vienna)
1873: World exposion vienna. Instead of the civic liberalism the municipality came under control of the christian social party of Karl Lueger after 1890.
Vienna became a world-metrolo under Lueger.
1885: First telephone communication in austria between vienna and brno;
Auer von Welsbach invented the "glow-stocking" for the gas glow light
1889: Crown prince Rudolf V
1892: Reorganization of coins in austria: the new unit, the crown (gold currency), is tiled in 100 Heller and was equated half a Gulden.
"Twofederation", name for the french-russian alliance, which was founded because of the exchange of notes in Aug. 1891 and the military convention of 17.8.1892.
Neutra, Richard Joseph, *)vienna 8.4. 1892, †)Wuppertal 16.4.1970, american architect with austrian birth. Representative of Functionalism; his letter ›if we want to live on‹ (1954).
Hauptmann, Gerhart, *)Bad Salzbrunn 15.11.1862, †)Agnetendorf bei Hirschberg i.)Rsgb. 6.6.1946, ger. author. With his sociocritical dramas most important representative of the german naturalism (›before sunrise‹, 1889; ›The weaversr‹, 1892; ›The beaver fur‹, 1893; ›The red cock‹, 1901; ›Rose Bernd‹, 1903; ›The rats‹, 1911); left a extensive, various styles bound work, thereunder beside many other dramas also novels (e.g. ›Atlantis‹, 1912, ›Signalman Thiel‹, 1892); in the late years preference af antique dramas: ›The Atriden-Tetralogie‹ (1941)ff.); autobiography: ›The adventure of my youth‹ (1937). Nobel pricewinner of literature in 1912.
Lítfaßsäule, poster pillar for outdoor advertising; embattled for the first time 1855 in Berlin from Ernst Litfaß ( *)1816, †)1874) and the ringmaster Ernst Jacob Renz (*)1815, †)1892) aufgestellt.
Sezession Art: (Secession) isolation of a group ao artists from an older community of artists, e.g. Munich S. (1892), Viennas S. under G. Klimt (1897), Berlines S. under M. Liebermann (1898).
Freese, Heinrich, *)Hamburg 13.5. 1853, †)Strausberg 29.9.1944, ger. industrialist and social policity. Innovated agency for workers and rate agreement (1884), profit sharing for workers (1889/91) and the eight-hour-day (1892) in his company.
Trenker, Luis, *)Sankt Ulrich (Südtirol) 4.10.1892, †)Bozen 13.4.1990, actor, filmproducer and author. Primarily known for mountain-films: u.)a. ›Der Rebell‹ (1932), ›Der verlorene Sohn‹ (1934), ›Sein bester Freund‹ (1962); also for reportage and television films, novels and narratives.
Siemens, Werner von (since 1888) , *)Lenthe (today zu Gehrden bei Hannover) 13.12. 1816, †)Berlin 6.12. 1892, engineer and businessman. Fundamental inventions in electrical engineering, e.g. ticker; detected the dynamoelektr. prinziple and constructed the dynamo in 1866; manufactoring and putting of cables for deep sea.
General Electric Company, greatest electric trust of the world; seat New York; originated in 1892 by merger of Edison General Electric Co. (founded 1878) and Thomson-Houston Electric Co.
Knaus-Ogino-Method [based to the gynaecologists H. Knaus (1892-1970, austria) u. K. Ogino (1882-1975, japan)]: for contraception and familiy planning applicable, based on calculation of ovulation method for determination of prolific and infertile days of a woman (Med.).
Kelvin, William Lord K. of Largs (since 1892), previously Sir (since 1866) William Thomson, *)Belfast 26.6. 1824, †)Nethergall bei Largs 17.12. 1907, brit. physicist. Works about thermodynamics and tenet of electricity; created the Kelvin-Scala.
Dollfuß, Engelbert, *)Texing (today Texingtal bei Mank) 4.10. 1892, †)Wien 25.7. 1934, austrian politician (christian-social party). Since 1932 federal chancellor and foreign minister; created 1933 an authoritarian regime after elimination of the parliament, interdiction of communist and national-social party; forcible elimination of austrian social democracy 1934; died as victim of a failed nat.-soc. putsch.
Haile Selàssie I. (amhar. Haile Sellase [›Macht der Dreifaltigkeit‹]), urspr. Täfäri Mäkwännen, *)Edjersso Gora (Harärge) 23.7. 1892, †)Addis Abeba 27.8. 1975, äthiop. King (since 1928) and emporer (since 1930). Made the first constitution of Äthiopia in 1931; 1936–41 in Great Britain in exile; decisive involved on foundation of the OAU (1963); displaced by military in 1974.
Ford Henry, *)Dearborn (Mich.) 30.7.1863, †)Detroit 7.4.1947, american. motorcar industrian. Constructed in 1892 his first motorcar; foundation of Ford Motor Co. 1903; he consequential realised the idea by rationalized mass production (division of work, assembly-line work) and as much as possible favourable terms (short working hours, high wages) to develope sales (Fordismus); founded the Ford Foundation.
Tito, Josip Broz, eigtl. J.Broz, gen. T., *)Kumrovec bei Varazdin 25.5. 1892, †)Ljubljana 4.5. 1980, Yugoslav marshal (sice 1943) and politician. Orig. social democrat, since 1915 communist; emigrated 1934; 1936–38 activ for republic in span. civil war; since 1937 general sekretary of KPJ. Since 1941 T. organized the partisan fight in Yugoslavwia against ger. and italian occupation; became president of ›Antifaschist. Rates der Nat. Befreiung‹ 1943; since 1945 premier and minister of defence, since 1953 chief of the state. After turning away from Stalinism 1948 he followed his own way to socialism (Titoism); in domestic politics abroad recognized figure for integration, in internat. politics one of the spokesmen of ›Non-Aligned Nations‹.
Gulden (vernacularly Gülden), numismat. term with varied interpretations: e.g. 1. orig. Goldgulden; 2. Silvercoins of same value; 3. Account-G. with various value, which sometimes were uncoind – The Gold-G. has been coind first in 14.century as imitation of the florentin. Floren (since 1252). The silver G.groschen have been coined since end of 15.century, the silver Reichsguldiner 1524, 1551, 1559 (Guldentaler as 60 Kreuzer). In S-germany existed a consistent G.currency since 1837. In the German State the Mark won recognition against the G. after 1871. In Austria the silver-G. kept in official notation as twocrownpieces after 1892. In Netherlands from 1601–1967 the silver-G., since then in copper nickels alloy; 1973 without goldbond.
Emperor Franz Josef wrote in a letter about his wife Elisabeth in 1892:
"... I want it to articulate, because I don´t know how to show, it also would bore you, if I showed, - how unendingly I love you."
1897: Begin of the "Secession"
1898: Empress Elisabeth V
1900: Auer von Welsbach invented the first useable metal thread lamp
1900: Incorporation of Brigittenau
1904: Incorporation of Floridsdorf
1914: Archduke-heir of the thrown Franz Ferdinand V
21.11.1916: Emperor Franz Josef I in Schönbrunn V
1919: The crown has only a third of the value of peace
1920: Vienna becomes capital city of the republic and in the same time an own federal state (1920-1934 federal state, 1934-1938 "federal immediate city", 1938-1945 "Reichsgau", since 1945 federal state
1922: 1kg pork costs 40.000 crowns in september, 1 year earlier "only" 1.100.